ADS-B Update 2020 – What you need to know

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UPDATE: ADS-B is required when operating over the U.S. as of January 1, 2020. However, aircraft without the necessary ADS-B capabilities can still operate in U.S. airspace with a single-use route deviation authorization obtained through the FAA’s ADS-B Deviation Authorization Pre-Flight Tool (ADAPT).

Universal’s regulatory experts working in conjunction with our flight planners manage the whole process and make it safe, fast, and easy for you.

For more information on this service, contact your Universal Account Manager or our Global Regulatory Services Team.

Some of the highly anticipated 2020 ADS-B mandates are now in effect. Others have been delayed, and additional new mandates are on the horizon for later in 2020 and 2021. If you fly internationally, it is becoming increasingly more difficult to get around the globe without ADS-B.

The following is an overview of what ADS-B is, which countries already require ADS-B and those who have upcoming mandates:

1. Understand ADS-B

ADS stands for “Automatic Dependent Surveillance” – a surveillance capability used for tracking aircraft. There are two commonly recognized types of ADS: ADS-B (broadcast) and ADS-C (ContRact). ADS-C is broadcast on a one-to-one relationship between the reporting aircraft and the ground facility. ADS-B, on the other hand, operates in a broadcast mode, in which the aircraft reports position and ground speed information on a regular basis and at a much higher frequency than for ADS-C. The advantage of ADS-B is that any appropriately equipped ground facility, or other aircraft, can intercept position reports.

2. United States

Starting Jan. 1, 2020 ADS-B will be required when operating over all 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required; 1) While operating within class B or C airspace. 2) While operating within 12NM of the coast line in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft MSL.

ADS-B is now required when operating over all 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft. AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required:

  1. While operating within class B or C airspace.
  2. While operating within 12NM of the coastline in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft. MSL.

Requirements for areas outside the 48 Contiguous States can be found in the FAA Notices to Airmen.

For more details, please read through these references: FAA ADS-B | 14 CFR 91.225 | 14 CFR 91.227 | FAA Final Rule | Airspace

ADS-B for 2019

ADS-B Exemption

ADS-B is required when operating over the U.S. as of January 1, 2020. However, aircraft without the necessary ADS-B capabilities can still operate in U.S. airspace with a single-use route deviation authorization obtained through the FAA’s ADS-B Deviation Authorization Pre-Flight Tool (ADAPT).

To accommodate requests for authorization to deviate from this rule, the web-based tool known as ADAPT was created. As stated in an FAA policy statement (84 Federal Register 12062 dated April 1, 2019), ADAPT is not intended to be used for regular or routine operations by non-equipped aircraft, and your use of ADAPT appears to be regular and/or routine.).

If the FAA denies your requests due to regular and/or routine use, a one-time authorization may be requested for actual ADS-B equipment installation or ferry of aircraft. 

ADAPT facts:

  • Applies to U.S. airspace route segments only
  • Only valid for a single route
  • Applications can be submitted 24 hrs. to 1 hr. in advance of departure
  • Authorizations are only valid within a +2 hour window of approved ETD

Universal is now supporting operators with turnkey FAA ADAPT ADS-B Exemption support. For more information on this service, contact our Global Regulatory Services Team.

3. Australia

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above flight level (FL) 290 over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513) and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). ADS-B is required for all Australian registered aircraft if operating in Class A, B, C or E airspace within the minor arc of a circle that starts 500 nautical miles (NM) true north from Perth (YPPH) and finishes 500 NM true east from YPPH. More information can be found on AIP GEN 2.2 CASA 114/16.

Australia published ADS-B mandate changes in late 2016 which has allowed some operators of non-ADS-B equipped aircraft to continue to operate below FL 290, for a limited period. However, beginning Jun 06, 2020, ADS-B will be required for all IFR flights, above and below FL290, across the continent.

4. Europe

ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft with certificates of airworthiness issued on or after Jan 8, 2015. Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts). For more information see EC No 1207/2011 and EC No 1028/2014 (AMDT to 1207/2011).

In 2014, Europe delayed certain ADS-B implementation requirements, to exempt some operators from ADS-B requirements for another two to six years, depending upon when the aircraft was manufactured. Be aware that commencing Jun 7, 2020, ADS-B will be mandated for all IFR flights for aircraft with MTOW of 5700 kg (12,655 lbs.) or greater and/or maximum cruising TAS greater than 250 kts.

5. Hong Kong

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 on airways L642 and M771. For more information see AIP GEN 1.5.

6. Indonesia

ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL 290. More information can be found at AIP SUP 18/17 and AIP ENR 1.8.

7. Seychelles

Effective June 7th, 2020 all flights within the Seychelles (FSSS) FIR require ADS-B. Some automatic exemptions are available such as; STATE aircraft, small aircraft and others.  See AIC 01/19 for more information.

8. Singapore

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 within the area bounded by:

073605N 1090045E, 040713N 1063543E, 041717N 1061247E (MABLI), 044841N 1052247E (DOLOX), 045223N 1041442E (ENREP), 045000N 1034400E, thence north along the Singapore FIR boundary to 070000N 1080000E.

This area includes the following airways: L642, L644, M753, M771, M904, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803 and T611.

For more information see AIP ENR 1.8.

9. Sri Lanka

No current ADS-B mandates.

Beginning sometime this year (2020), ADS-B will be required within the Colombo Terminal Control Area (TMA). More details will be released at a later time, when it’s available.  For more information see AIC 02/16.

10. Vietnam

Currently ADS-B is required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVTS FIR whose MTOW is 5,700 kgs (12,566 lbs) or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290.

11. Taiwan

ADS-B is mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL 290. For more information see ENR 1.8.13.

12. China

ADS-B is currently required for all flights at and above FL290 if operating in one of the following sectors of the Urumqi CTA. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06. For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18.

13. Colombia

Colombia was originally supposed to go live with their mandate on January 1st, 2020, however, this has been delayed until April 30th, 2022. ADS-B is required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels. For more information see RAC 4 4.2.2.6.

14. India

The current requirement is for aircraft to be ADS-B equipped in order to operate at or above FL285 on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153.

15. Malaysia

ADS-B is required in order to operate from FL290 to FL410 (inclusive) along the airway segments listed below. More information may be found within AIC 03/17.

  • B466 (ANOKO-TOSOK)
  • L510 (EMRAN-GIVAL)
  • L645 (SAMAK-SAPAM)
  • N571 (IGOGU-VAMPI)
  • P574 (NOPEK-ANSAX)
  • P627 (POVUS-RUSET)
  • P628 (IGREX-GIVAL)

16. New Zealand

Currently all flights operating within the NZZC FIR at or above FL245 require ADS-B. A second phase to begin on December 31st, 2021 is currently proposed and not yet part of the mandate, but would require all flights within the NZZC FIR to have operational ADS-B equipment.

17. French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR

Currently all aircraft flying at or above FL200 will require to be ADS-B equipped. Starting on January 1st, 2022 the mandate will then expand to include the entire NTTT FIR. More information located at AIC PAC-P A06/19.

18. Canada

Starting February 25th, 2021 Space-based ADS-B will be used for surveillance in Class A airspace and then on January 27th, 2022 will expand into Class B airspace.  Non ADS-B Out equipped aircraft will be accommodated within the airspace until a performance requirements mandate can be implemented.  More information located in this Notice of Change Update.

19. UAE

As per U.A.E. AIC 13/19 and CAR Part IV Aircraft Operations CAR OPS 1.867 ADS-B is mandated in the Emirates FIR for all IFR aircraft.

20. Saudi Arabia

As per GACAR 91.477 (b)(1)(vi) ADS- B will be mandated starting on January 1st, 2021 in class A, E and B/C/D (around major airports).

21. South Africa

As of January 2020 the decision for an ADS-B mandate has been delayed until 2022.

22. Mexico

Starting on January 1st, 2022 ADS-B will be mandated for all IFR operations within all Mexican airspace.  More information at Advisory CO AV-91.2/19

23. Curacao FIR

As per AIC 07/19 all flights operating on or northwest of airway UM525, at and above FL290 requires ADS-B.

Tips when traversing regions with ADS-B requirements

Become familiar with ICAO FPL equipment and capability codes (Items 10a/b and Item 18) as well as your performance-based navigation (PBN) codes to help prevent misunderstandings with air traffic control (ATC) while in flight. Know which codes apply to the specific operation. Remember that codes filed in the FPL should represent not only aircraft equipment and capabilities, but also those crew members covered by necessary training, authorizations from state of registry and working equipment.

Conclusion

Many ADS-B mandates will come into force in 2020. Keep in mind that even though some countries do not currently have any ADS-B mandates or any proposals for mandates, there is still quite a bit of ADS-B coverage out there. Those aircraft not equipped with ADS-B can still potentially run into situations as you are less equipped than those around you. Keep this mentality in mind while flying these days … “better equipped, better served” as it is no longer just first come first served.


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