ADS-B for 2019 and Beyond
As we enter 2019, we’re now less than a year away from the United States implementation of ADS-B. With the 2020 mandates looming right around the corner, more countries have posted ADS-B mandates, some of which are broken into a phased release in 2019 and 2020.
The following is an overview of what ADS-B is, which countries already require ADS-B and those who have upcoming mandates:
1. Understand ADS-B
ADS stands for “Automatic Dependent Surveillance” – a surveillance capability used for tracking aircraft. There are two commonly recognized types of ADS: ADS-B (broadcast) and ADS-C (ContRact). ADS-C is broadcast on a one-to-one relationship between the reporting aircraft and the ground facility. ADS-B, on the other hand, operates in a broadcast mode, in which the aircraft reports position and ground speed information on a regular basis and at a much higher frequency than for ADS-C. The advantage of ADS-B is that any appropriately equipped ground facility, or other aircraft, can intercept position reports.
2. United States
Starting Jan. 1, 2020 ADS-B will be required when operating over all 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required; 1) While operating within class B or C airspace. 2) While operating within 12NM of the coast line in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft MSL.
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above flight level (FL) 290 over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513) and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). ADS-B is required for all Australian registered aircraft if operating in Class A, B, C or E airspace within the minor arc of a circle that starts 500 nautical miles (NM) true north from Perth (YPPH) and finishes 500 NM true east from YPPH. More information can be found on AIP GEN 2.2 CASA 114/16.
Australia published ADS-B mandate changes in late 2016 which has allowed some operators of non-ADS-B equipped aircraft to continue to operate below FL 290, for a limited period. However, beginning Jun 06, 2020, ADS-B will be required for all IFR flights, above and below FL290, across the continent.
ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft with certificates of airworthiness issued on or after Jan 8, 2015. Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts). For more information see EC No 1207/2011 and EC No 1028/2014 (AMDT to 1207/2011).
In 2014, Europe delayed certain ADS-B implementation requirements, to exempt some operators from ADS-B requirements for another two to six years, depending upon when the aircraft was manufactured. Be aware that commencing Jun 7, 2020, ADS-B will be mandated for all IFR flights for aircraft with MTOW of 5700 kg (12,655 lbs.) or greater and/or maximum cruising TAS greater than 250 kts.
5. Hong Kong
ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL 290. More information can be found at AIP SUP 18/17 and AIP ENR 1.8.
We are awaiting a clearer interpretation from Civil Aviation pertaining their published AIC with regards to ADS-B requirements. See AIC 01/17 for more information.
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 within the area bounded by:
073605N 1090045E, 040713N 1063543E, 041717N 1061247E (MABLI), 044841N 1052247E (DOLOX), 045223N 1041442E (ENREP), 045000N 1034400E, thence north along the Singapore FIR boundary to 070000N 1080000E.
This area includes the following airways: L642, L644, M753, M771, M904, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803 and T611.
For more information see AIP ENR 1.8-1.
9. Sri Lanka
No current ADS-B mandates.
Beginning in 2020, ADS-B will be required within the Colombo terminal maneuvering area (TMA). More details will be released at a later time, when it’s available.
Currently ADS-B is required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVTS FIR whose MTOW is 15,000 kgs (33,069 lbs) or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290.
Starting January 1st, 2020, the MTOW requirement noted above will be reduced to 5,700 kgs (12,566 lbs).
Airways B576 and B591 within Taiwan airspace currently require ADS-B compliance, in order to operate at or above FL290.
As of Dec 31, 2019, ADS-B will become mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL 290. For more information see AIP SUP 06/16.
ADS-B is currently required for all flights at and above FL290 if operating in one of the following sectors of the Urumqi CTA. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06. For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18.
Effective January 1st, 2020 ADS-B is required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels. For more information see RAC 4 184.108.40.206.
The recently published AIP SUP 148/18 identifies that on January 1st, 2019 India will begin enforcing a mandate for ADS-B. The mandate will require aircraft to be ADS-B equipped in order to operate at or above FL285 for on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153.
NOTE: As of December 28, 2018, the date of implementation for the mandate has been delayed by one year to January 1st, 2020. See NOTAM VABF/VIDF/VECF/VOMF G1995/18.
Starting December 31st, 2019 ADS-B will be required in order to operate from FL290 to FL410 (inclusive) along the airway segments listed below. More information may be found within AIC 03/17.
- B466 (ANOKO-TOSOK)
- L510 (EMRAN-GIVAL)
- L645 (SAMAK-SAPAM)
- N571 (IGOGU-VAMPI)
- P574 (NOPEK-ANSAX)
- P627 (POVUS-RUSET)
- P628 (IGREX-GIVAL)
16. New Zealand
On December 31st, 2018 all flights operating within the NZZC FIR at or above FL245 will require ADS-B. A second phase to begin on December 31st, 2021 is currently proposed and not yet part of the mandate, but would require all flights within the NZZC FIR to have operational ADS-B equipment.
17. French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR
This mandate goes into effect on January 1st, 2019. Aircraft flying at or above FL200 will require to be ADS-B equipped. Starting on January 1st, 2022 the mandate will then expand to include the entire NTTT FIR. More information located at AIC PAC-P A08/18.
At the time of this publication, NavCanada is proposing a future mandate, but no further details have yet to be released.
20. Tips when traversing regions with ADS-B requirements
Become familiar with ICAO FPL equipment and capability codes (Items 10a and 10b) as well as your performance-based navigation (PBN) codes to help prevent misunderstandings with air traffic control (ATC) while in flight. Know which codes apply to the specific operation. Remember that codes filed in the FPL should represent not only aircraft equipment and capabilities, but also those crew members covered by necessary training, authorizations from state of registry and working equipment.
Many ADS-B mandates will come into force in 2019 and 2020. Keep in mind that even though some countries do not currently have any ADS-B mandates or any proposals for mandates, there is still quite a bit of ADS-B coverage out there. Those aircraft not equipped with ADS-B can still potentially run into situations as you are less equipped that those around you. Keep this mentality in mind while flying these days … “better equipped, better served” as it is no longer just first come first served.