ADS-B UPDATE 2024– WHERE ARE WE NOW?

PT 7 M minute read
36309
Share:

The following is an overview of what ADS-B is, which countries already require ADS-B, and those who have upcoming mandates:


Australia

ADS-B is required for all IFR operations at all flight levels over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513), and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). More information can be found on AIP GEN 1.5, ENR 1 | CASA 61/14


 

Canada

All flights within Canadian Domestic Class A airspace (essentially all domestic airspace at or above FL180) requires ADS-B.  Starting May 16th, 2024 the mandate will then extend to include all Class B airspace.  NavCanada will extend this to all Class C, D and E airspace, but this will occur no earlier than 2028. 

Canada is different than other countries as there are two equipment requirements that need to be met.

  • be equipped with an appropriate transponder with ADS-B Out capabilities that performs to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards of RTCA DO-260B, or newer; and
  • have antenna capability for broadcast toward both ground-based as well as space-based ADS-B receivers. This requirement can be met either through antenna diversity (the use of a top and bottom antenna) or with a single antenna capable of transmitting both towards the ground and up towards satellites.

For more information, see AIP ENR 1.6.3.


China

ADS-B is currently required for all flights at and above FL290 if operating in one of the following Urumqi CTA sectors. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06. For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18.


Colombia

ADS-B is required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels. For more information, see RAC 4 4.2.2.6.


Curacao FIR

All flights operating at and above FL290 requires ADS-B.  The implementation to require ADS-B all the way to the surface has been delayed until July 1st, 2024.  For more information, see AIP ENR 1.6, paragraph 1.6.1, AIC 10/19, AIC 14/23 and AIC 15/23.


El Salvador

Starting on June 24, 2022, all flights operating over the landmass of El Salvador will require ADS-B. For more information, see AIC 81/22.


Europe

ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft.  Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts).

Exemptions

An aircraft will be exempt from the mandate if they meet one of these criteria.

  • Individual Certificate of Airworthiness first issued before June 7th, 1995, OR
  • Flight purpose is for maintenance or export, OR
  • Operation will cease by 31-OCT-2025

If an aircraft meets any of the exemptions above, enter EUADSBX into the Item 18 SUR/ field of their FPL.

For more information, see (EU) No 1207/2011 and (EU) No 1028/2014 and (EU) 2017/386 and (EU) 2020/587, the latter 2 are amendments to (EU) No 1207/2011 | EASA AMC | ADS-B Europe


French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR

ADS-B is mandated for all flights in the NTTT FIR.  More information is located at AIP PAC P ENR 1.6.3.


Guatemala

Starting on June 24th, 2024, all flights operating over the landmass of Guatemala will require ADS-B.  For more information, see AIC 54/23.


Hong Kong

ADS-B is required for all operations above FL285. For more information, see AIP GEN 1.5 and ENR 1.10.


India

The current requirement is for aircraft to be ADS-B equipped to operate at or above FL285 on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153.  For more information, see AIP SUP 148/18.


Indonesia

ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL245. Below FL245 ADS-B is required in multiple TMA and CTR airspace as well as parts of Class D and E airspace.  More information can be found at AIP ENR 1.6.


Malaysia

In 2022 Malaysia canceled its original plans to require ADS-B throughout the WMFC and WBFC FIRs.  As of now, they are only running trials and there are no mandates planned until 2025.  However, if operating within the Oceanic airspace of WMFC they do note:  not be accorded priority in the delineated airspace and flight level assignments will be on opportunity basis subject to air traffic conditions (ENR 1.1, paragraph 1.1.15.3.2)

For more information:  ENR 1.1, paragraph 1.1.15 and AIC 03/17


Mexico

ADS-B is mandated for all IFR operations within Mexican controlled airspace.  This does not apply to the Mazatlan Oceanic (MMFO) FIR.  For more information, see AIC 04/20.


Mongolia

All flights operating at and above FL290 (8840 meters) requires ADS-B.  For more information, see AIP ENR 1.6.


Nandi (NFFF) FIR / Fiji Sector

All flights operating within the Fiji Domestic sector of the Nandi (NFFF) FIR requires ADS-B.  For more information, see AIC 03/23.


New Caledonia / NFFF FIR

All flights operating within the New Caledonia sector of the Nandi (NFFF) FIR requires ADS-B.  For more information, see AIP PAC-N GEN 1.5.


New Zealand

ADS-B is required for all flights within controlled airspace of the NZZC FIR.  For more information, see AIP ENR 1.4, paragraph 3.


Saudi Arabia

ADS-B is required for all flights operating in Saudi Arabia classes A (FL150 to FL460), E (FL115 to FL150) and B/C/D (airspace around major airports up to FL150).  For more information, see GACAR 91.477 (b)(1)(vi).


Seychelles

The initial mandate that was supposed to go into effect on June 7th, 2020, has been delayed indefinitely per AIC 10/20.  Based on AIC 01/19, the mandate that is to be applied sometime in the future is as follows: All flights within the Seychelles (FSSS) FIR require ADS-B. Some automatic exemptions are available such as; STATE aircraft, small aircraft, and others. See AIC 01/19 and AIC 10/20 for more information.


Singapore

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL290 within the area bounded by:

073605N 1090045E, 040713N 1063543E, 041717N 1061247E (MABLI), 044841N 1052247E (DOLOX), 045224N 1041442E (ENREP), 045000N 1034400E, thence north along the Singapore FIR boundary to 070000N 1080000E

This area includes the following airways: L517, L625, L642, L644, L649, M753, M758, M767, M768, M771, M772, M904, N884, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803, and T611.  

For more information, see AIC 03/20.


South Africa

Starting 12-JUN-2025 all aircraft operating in Class A and in designated Class C airspace will require ADS-B.  For more information, see AIC 05/23.


Sri Lanka

ADS-B is required within a prescribed area (See AIP SUP 02/20 for more details).

Aircraft manufactured before 01-JAN-2020 must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260, DO-260A, or DO-260B.  Aircraft manufactured on or after 01-JAN-2020 and has an MTOW exceeding 12,566 lbs (5,700 kgs) or having a maximum cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260B.

For more information, see  AIP ENR 1.6.3.


Taiwan

ADS-B is mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL290. For more information, see ENR 1.8.13.


Thailand

Thailand will initiate a mandate that is effective on 05SEP24.  All flights within Thailand’s airspace will require ADS-B.  For more information, see AIC 07/24.


UAE

As per U.A.E. AIP GEN 1.5 and CAR Part IV Aircraft Operations, CAR OPS 1.867 ADS-B is mandated in the Emirates FIR for all IFR aircraft.


United States

ADS-B is now required when operating overall 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft. AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required:

  1. While operating within class B or C airspace.
  2. While operating within 12NM of the coastline in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft. MSL.

Requirements for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are slightly different. The class E requirement does not apply to these areas. ADS-B will be required at or above FL180 and at or below FL100, you will need it when:

  1. While operating within class B or C airspace.
  2. While operating within 12NM of the coastline.

For the Guam and Northern Mariana Islands (South of 1749N), the only requirements are at or above FL180 and while operating within 12NM of the coastline.

Currently there are no ADS-B requirements for Navassa Island, American Samoa, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Northern Mariana Islands (North of 1749N), Palmyra Atoll and Wake Atoll.

For more details, please read through these references: FAA ADS-B | 14 CFR 91.225 | 14 CFR 91.227 | FAA Final Rule | Airspace

ADS-B for 2019

ADS-B Exemption

ADS-B is required when operating over the U.S. as of Jan. 1, 2020. However, aircraft without the necessary ADS-B capabilities can still operate in U.S. airspace with a single-use route deviation authorization obtained through the FAA’s ADS-B Deviation Authorization Pre-Flight Tool (ADAPT).

To accommodate requests for authorization to deviate from this rule, the web-based tool known as ADAPT was created. As stated in an FAA policy statement (84 Federal Register 12062 dated April 1, 2019), ADAPT is not intended to be used for regular or routine operations by non-equipped aircraft, and your use of ADAPT appears to be regular and/or routine.).

Suppose the FAA denies your requests due to regular and/or routine use. In that case, a one-time authorization may be requested for actual ADS-B equipment installation or ferry of aircraft. 

ADAPT facts:

  • Applies to U.S. airspace route segments only
  • Only valid for a single route
  • Applications can be submitted 24 hrs. to 1 hr. in advance of departure
  • Authorizations are only valid within a +2 hour window of approved ETD

     

    ATTENTION: Embedded Video Playback Unavailable - Due to your current cookie preferences, videos embedded on this page cannot be displayed. We respect your decision to control your personal data. You have the option to adjust your cookie preferences. Please accept preferences, statistics, marketing cookies to watch this video.

    Universal is now supporting operators with turnkey FAA ADAPT ADS-B Exemption support. For more information on this service, contact our Global Regulatory Services Team.


Vietnam

Currently, ADS-B is required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVHM FIR whose MTOW is 5,700 kgs (12,566 lbs) or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500, and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equipment versions

All mandates in effect currently require your ADS-B equipment to meet the requirements for 1090ES (1090 MHz), while some areas (USA) also allow 978 UAT (978 MHz) equipment to be used.  Be sure you have the correct version to operate where you are going.

1090 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA                           Europe/EUROCAE

0                              260                                         —

1                              260A                                      ED-102

2                              260B                                      ED-102A

3                              260C                                      ED-102B

978 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA

0                              282

1                              282A

2                              282B

3                              282C


Tips when traversing regions with ADS-B requirements

Become familiar with ICAO FPL equipment and capability codes (Items 10a/b and Item 18) as well as your performance-based navigation (PBN) codes to help prevent misunderstandings with air traffic control (ATC) while in flight. Know which codes apply to the specific operation. Remember that codes filed in the FPL should represent not only aircraft equipment and capabilities but also those crew members covered by necessary training, authorizations from the state of registry, and working equipment.


Conclusion

Even though some countries do not currently have any ADS-B mandates or any proposals for mandates, they still may provide ADS-B services. ADS-B services are also provided in some non-radar environments with satellite-based ADS-B. If you are non-ADS-B equipped and flying in an area that does not have a mandate but does provide ADS-B services, you still may not get the altitude/route you want.  Keep this mentality in mind while flying these days … “better equipped, better served,” as it is no longer just first come, first served.


Got a question for Jason about this article?

Share: