ADS-B UPDATE 2022 – WHERE ARE WE NOW

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ADS-B 2021

With ADS-B now being used in areas such as the North Atlantic, controllers can see aircraft live in areas of the world using non-radar procedures since the dawn of aviation.  The majority of areas with heavy traffic already require ADS-B or will require it over the next few years.

The following is an overview of what ADS-B is, which countries already require ADS-B, and those who have upcoming mandates:


Understand ADS-B

ADS stands for “Automatic Dependent Surveillance” – a surveillance capability used for tracking aircraft. There are two commonly recognized types of ADS: ADS-B (broadcast) and ADS-C (ContRact). ADS-C is broadcast on a one-to-one relationship between the reporting aircraft and the ground facility. On the other hand, ADS-B operates in a broadcast mode. The aircraft reports position and ground speed information regularly and at a much higher frequency than for ADS-C. The advantage of ADS-B is that any appropriately equipped ground facility, or other aircraft, can intercept position reports.


United States

ADS-B is now required when operating overall 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft. AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required:

  1. While operating within class B or C airspace.
  2. While operating within 12NM of the coastline in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft. MSL.

Requirements for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are slightly different. The class E requirement does not apply to these areas. ADS-B will be required at or above FL180 and at or below FL100, you will need it when:

  1. While operating within class B or C airspace.
  2. While operating within 12NM of the coastline.

For the Guam and Northern Mariana Islands (South of 1749N), the only requirements are at or above FL180 and while operating within 12NM of the coastline.

Currently there are no ADS-B requirements for Navassa Island, American Samoa, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Northern Mariana Islands (North of 1749N), Palmyra Atoll and Wake Atoll.

For more details, please read through these references: FAA ADS-B | 14 CFR 91.225 | 14 CFR 91.227 | FAA Final Rule | Airspace

ADS-B for 2019

ADS-B Exemption

ADS-B is required when operating over the U.S. as of Jan. 1, 2020. However, aircraft without the necessary ADS-B capabilities can still operate in U.S. airspace with a single-use route deviation authorization obtained through the FAA’s ADS-B Deviation Authorization Pre-Flight Tool (ADAPT).

To accommodate requests for authorization to deviate from this rule, the web-based tool known as ADAPT was created. As stated in an FAA policy statement (84 Federal Register 12062 dated April 1, 2019), ADAPT is not intended to be used for regular or routine operations by non-equipped aircraft, and your use of ADAPT appears to be regular and/or routine.).

Suppose the FAA denies your requests due to regular and/or routine use. In that case, a one-time authorization may be requested for actual ADS-B equipment installation or ferry of aircraft. 

ADAPT facts:

  • Applies to U.S. airspace route segments only
  • Only valid for a single route
  • Applications can be submitted 24 hrs. to 1 hr. in advance of departure
  • Authorizations are only valid within a +2 hour window of approved ETD

Universal is now supporting operators with turnkey FAA ADAPT ADS-B Exemption support. For more information on this service, contact our Global Regulatory Services Team.


Australia

ADS-B is required for all IFR operations at all flight levels over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513), and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). More information can be found on AIP GEN 1.5, ENR 1 | CASA 61/14


Europe

ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft.  Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts).

Transitional Phase

The transitional phase ends on June 7th, 2023.  During this period, an aircraft can be exempt from the mandate based on one of the following.

  • The first individual Certificate of Airworthiness was issued on or after June 7th, 1995 and before December 7th, 2020 and
  • The operator has established a retrofit program prior to December 7th, 2020 that demonstrates compliance prior to June 7th, 2023 (Reference EU No 1207/2011, Article 5, part (c)) and
  • The aircraft has not benefited from EU funding for the retrofit implementation (Reference EU No 1207/2011, Article 5, part (c)).

Exemptions

An aircraft will be exempt from the mandate if they meet one of these criteria.

  • Individual Certificate of Airworthiness first issued before June 7th, 1995, OR
  • Flight purpose is for maintenance or export, OR
  • Operation will cease by 31-OCT-2025

If an aircraft meets any of the exemptions above, enter EUADSBX into the Item 18 SUR/ field of their FPL.

For more information, see (EU) No 1207/2011 and (EU) No 1028/2014 and (EU) 2017/386 and (EU) 2020/587, the latter 2 are amendments to (EU) No 1207/2011 | EASA AMC | ADS-B Europe


Hong Kong

ADS-B is required for all operations above FL285. For more information, see AIP GEN 1.5 and ENR 1.10.


Indonesia

ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL245. Below FL245 ADS-B is required in multiple TMA and CTR airspace as well as parts of Class D and E airspace.  More information can be found at AIP ENR 1.6.


Seychelles

The initial mandate that was supposed to go into effect on June 7th, 2020, has been delayed indefinitely per AIC 10/20.  Based on AIC 01/19, the mandate that is to be applied sometime in the future is as follows: All flights within the Seychelles (FSSS) FIR require ADS-B. Some automatic exemptions are available such as; STATE aircraft, small aircraft, and others. See AIC 01/19 and AIC 10/20 for more information.


Singapore

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL290 within the area bounded by:

073605N 1090045E, 103000N 1140000E, 082500N 1163000E, 032833N 1100532E, 031802N 1093725E, 025514N 1074108E, 033341N 1065534E, 040713N 1063543E, and 073605N 1090045E.

This area includes the following airways: L517, L625, L642, L644, L649, M753, M758, M767, M768, M771, M772, M904, N884, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803, and T611.  

For more information, see AIC 03/20.


Sri Lanka

ADS-B is required within a prescribed area (See AIP SUP 02/20 for more details).

Aircraft manufactured before 01-JAN-2020 must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260, DO-260A, or DO-260B.  Aircraft manufactured on or after 01-JAN-2020 and has an MTOW exceeding 12,566 lbs (5,700 kgs) or having a maximum cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260B.

For more information, see AIP SUP 02/20.


Vietnam

Currently, ADS-B is required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVHM FIR whose MTOW is 5,700 kgs (12,566 lbs) or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500, and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290.


Taiwan

ADS-B is mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL290. For more information, see ENR 1.8.13.


China

ADS-B is currently required for all flights at and above FL290 if operating in one of the following Urumqi CTA sectors. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06. For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18.


Colombia

Starting on April 30th, 2022 ADS-B is required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels. For more information, see RAC 4 4.2.2.6.


India

The current requirement is for aircraft to be ADS-B equipped to operate at or above FL285 on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153.  For more information, see AIP SUP 148/18.


Malaysia

ADS-B is required in both WMFC and WBFC FIRs at all altitudes as of March 25, 2022. More information may be found within AIP SUP 01/20.


New Zealand

Currently, all flights operating within New Zealand where at or above FL245 where Transponder Mandatory Controlled Airspace exists require ADS-B. A second phase to begin on December 31st, 2022, will extend this requirement all the way to the surface.  More information may be found at https://www.nss.govt.nz/ads-b


French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR

ADS-B is required for all flights in the NTTT FIR since January 1, 2022.  More information is located at AIP ENR 1.6.3.


Canada

 

Starting on August 10th, 2023, all flights within Canadian Domestic Class A airspace (essentially all domestic airspace at or above FL180) will require ADS-B.  Starting May 16th, 2024 the mandate will then extend to all domestic Class A and B airspace (Essentially all domestic airspace at or above FL125).  Starting sometime in 2026 or later, this will extend to the surface with the addition of Class C, D, and E airspace.

For more information, see AIC 24/22 or the NavCanada Website.


UAE

As per U.A.E. AIP GEN 1.5 and CAR Part IV Aircraft Operations, CAR OPS 1.867 ADS-B is mandated in the Emirates FIR for all IFR aircraft.


Saudi Arabia

As per GACAR 91.477 (b)(1)(vi) ADS- B will be mandated starting on January 1st, 2023, in class A, E, and B/C/D (around major airports).


South Africa

As of this writing South Africa has yet to set an implementation date for their ADS-B mandate.


Mexico

ADS-B is mandated for all Mexican airspace IFR operations as of January 1, 2022.  This does not apply to Mazatlán Oceanic (MMFO). More information at AIC 04/20.


Curacao FIR

As per AIC 10/19, all flights operating at and above FL290 requires ADS-B.  On January 01, 2023, this requirement will extend all the way to the surface.


Mongolia

As per ENR 1.6, all flights operating at and above FL290 (8840 meters) requires ADS-B.


New Caledonia / NFFF FIR

Starting on January 01, 2022, all flights operating within the New Caledonia sector of the Nandi (NFFF) FIR requires ADS-B.  For more information, see AIP PAC-N GEN 1.5.


Guatemala

Starting on June 24, 2022, all flights operating over the landmass of Guatemala will require ADS-B. For more information, see AIC 10/21.


Equipment versions

All mandates in effect currently require your ADS-B equipment to meet the requirements for 1090ES (1090 MHz), while some areas (USA) also allow 978 UAT (978 MHz) equipment to be used.  Be sure you have the correct version to operate where you are going.

1090 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA                           Europe/EUROCAE

0                              260                                         —

1                              260A                                      ED-102

2                              260B                                      ED-102A

3                              260C                                      ED-102B

978 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA

0                              282

1                              282A

2                              282B

3                              282C


Tips when traversing regions with ADS-B requirements

Become familiar with ICAO FPL equipment and capability codes (Items 10a/b and Item 18) as well as your performance-based navigation (PBN) codes to help prevent misunderstandings with air traffic control (ATC) while in flight. Know which codes apply to the specific operation. Remember that codes filed in the FPL should represent not only aircraft equipment and capabilities but also those crew members covered by necessary training, authorizations from state of registry, and working equipment.


Conclusion

Remember that even though some countries do not currently have any ADS-B mandates or any proposals for mandates, there is still quite a bit of ADS-B coverage out there. Those aircraft not equipped with ADS-B can still potentially run into situations as you are less equipped than those around you. Keep this mentality in mind while flying these days … “better equipped, better served,” as it is no longer just first come, first served.


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