Business Aviation ADS-B Updates – Changes Over the Last Few Months
Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) coverage is growing throughout the world. Despite only five countries currently having any airspace where ADS-B equipage is mandated, ADS-B services are actually provided throughout a large amount of the world’s airspace. The information in this article is to go over those countries that currently have ADS-B mandates in place, as well as cover some of the areas that are rumored to have future mandates. Before reading this article, we recommend you first read our previous post: ADS-B Requirements Coming Into Effect.
The following is an overview of ADS-B changes and what you need to know:
1. Australia: ADS-B implementation
Australia was the first country to mandate ADS-B across a large amount of its airspace. Currently, ADS-B (1090 MHz) is required at and above Flight Level (FL) 290 across the entire landmass and a few bodies of water within Australia’s airspace.
Australia requires the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Flight Plan (FPL), this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
Australia does offer an exemption, but keep in mind that this does not exempt you from the ADS-B mandate for the entire area. Rather, the exemption is only for a specific area known as the "J-Hook" and Oceanic areas. Outside of those areas be prepared to operate at or below FL 280. Be sure to submit form 208 a minimum of 14 days prior to the date of operation to ensure your request has filtered through the proper channels. All exemptions for this country will expire on December 11, 2015.
For planning purposes, if you do not have the exemption, ensure you are planning the flight to remain at FL 280 or below until completely outside of Australian airspace.
2. Canada: No mandated ADS-B capabilities
Canada does not currently mandate ADS-B in any of its airspace. However, flights through the Hudson and Minto sectors over the Hudson Bay who are not ADS-B equipped may experience re-routes, speed, and/or flight level changes and must be planned along published air traffic service routes.
Keep in mind that you not only must be displaying the proper ADS-B codes in the FPL but also must be registered with NavCanada. See AIC 31/11 for more information.
3. China: ADS-B testing
Currently China does not have any ADS-B mandates. However, according to a published Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) (ZJSA A2056/13), China is running ADS-B trial operations along airways L642 and M771 within the Sanya (ZJSA) Flight Information Region (FIR).
A2056/13 NOTAMR A0849/13
A) ZJSA B) 1312310045 C) 1406302359
E) ADS-B TRIAL OPERATION ON ROUTE L642 AND M771 WI SANYA FIR:
1.ADS-B TRIAL OPERATION BETWEEN EPKAL-EXOTO ON ROUTE L642,BETWEEN
DONDA-DOSUT ON ROUTE M771.
2.RADAR WILL BE USED FOR PRIMARY SURVEILLANCE
3.’1090ES ADS-B OUT’ WILL BE USED FOR AUXILIARY SURVEILLANCE.
4.SANYA ACC AR03 VHF PRIMARY FREQ:130.2MHZ,SECONDARY FREQ:
134.4MHZ IN USE.
5.DURING THE TRIAL OPERATION, ACFT OVERFLYING ABOVE SEGMENTS SHALL
TURN ON ADS-B AND GUARANTEE THE TRANSMMITTER SETTINGS OF FLIGHT ID
ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ITEM 7 IN FPL(ACID) .
CREATED: 31 Dec 2013 00:48:00
4. Europe: Plans to implement ADS-B
In Europe ADS-B is currently not mandated and is part of the European Cascade Programme. The ADS-B mandate in Europe will be implemented in two phases. Both phases only apply to those aircraft conducting flights under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and that have Maximum Takeoff Weights (MTOWs) of 5,700 kgs (12,566 lbs.) or greater, or a maximum cruising true airspeed of greater than 250 knots true airspeed.
Phase 1 will begin on January 8, 2015 and only pertains to those aircraft with individual certificates of airworthiness issued on or after January 8, 2015. Phase 2 will be implemented on December 7, 2017 and will affect all aircraft crossing this airspace.
Note: Individual certificate of airworthiness means the date the aircraft was first issued an airworthiness certificate after rolling off the production line.
Europe will require the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the ICAO FPL, this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
5. Hong Kong: ADS-B-mandated in some areas
Currently Hong Kong mandates ADS-B on two airways which are primarily used for Hong Kong (VHHH) and Macao (VMMC) arrivals/departures and overflights to/from the Guangzhou FIR. The two airways are L642 and M771 at and above FL 290.
Phase 2 will begin on December 31, 2014, when the mandate will expand to include the entire Hong Kong FIR at and above FL 290.
Hong Kong will require the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the ICAO FPL, this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
6. Indonesia: ADS-B services available
Indonesia currently has ADS-B services; however, at the present time there are no mandates for aircraft to be ADS-B-equipped in order to operate within the country’s airspace. As of October 2013, at a recent Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean regional meeting, Indonesia indicated it is considering beginning ADS-B mandates sometime in 2016.
7. Singapore: ADS-B requirements
Singapore currently mandates ADS-B capabilities at and above FL 290 along the following airway segments:
- L642 between: ENREP-ESPOB
- M771 between: DOLOX-DUDIS
- N891 between: ENREP-IGARI
- M753 between: ENREP-IPRIX
- L644 between: MABLI-DUDIS
- N892 between: MABLI-MELAS
- R208 between: UPRON-IGARI
On June 26, 2014 this list will be extended to include airway M904 between ENREP-TIDAR as well.
Singapore will require the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the ICAO FPL, this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
8. Taiwan: ADS-B-mandated for some airways
The Taiwan mandate for ADS-B is only along two airways at this time – B576 and B591 – at and above FL 290. Starting on December 31, 2014, the mandate will be expanded to include the entire Taiwanese FIR at and above FL 290.
Taiwan will require the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the ICAO FPL, this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
9. United States: ADS-B requirements in 2020
As of the publishing date of this article, the United States will require ADS-B starting in 2020 for all flights in Class A (above FL 180), B and C (airspace around very busy airports), as well as Class E airspace at and above FL 100.
10. Vietnam: ADS-B-mandated on specific airways
The ADS-B mandate within Vietnam airspace is located at and above FL 290 on the following airways:
Vietnam requires the carriage of ADS-B (1090 MHz "in" or "out"). On the ICAO FPL, this is indicated with codes "B1" or "B2" in Item 10b.
11. Future ADS-B requirements
Based on reports from the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization, which has been working with countries in the South China Sea area, as well as the Bay of Bengal and Indian Oceans, some other countries to keep in mind for future mandate implementations are: India, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines.
According to Airways New Zealand, you could also be looking at ADS-B mandates covering this part of the world as well.
12. Things to watch for
Be sure your flight planning service provider knows whether or not your aircraft has ADS-B capabilities. Even if flying outside those areas that mandate ADS-B, you should still be indicating you are ADS-B-capable to air traffic control in order to gain the added services ADS-B provides.
The three items you will want to look at updating (if not already provided to your service provider) are the new ADS-B code(s) to apply to your FPL, changes to your transponder code in your FPL, and the ICAO aircraft address.
Below is an example of what is to be show in item 10b of the ICAO FPL and what equipment each code reflects:
|Item 10b (Surveillance Equipment) -SDE2FGHIJ4M2WXYZ/EB1|
|C||Mode A & C|
|E||Mode S with aircraft identification, pressure altitude, and extended squitter (ADS-B) capabilities|
|H||Mode S with aircraft identification, pressure altitude, and enhanced surveillance capabilities|
|I||Mode S with aircraft identification, but no pressure altitude transmission|
|L||Mode S with aircraft identification, pressure altitude, extended squitter (ADS-B) capabilities, and enhanced surveillance capabilities|
|X||Mode S without aircraft identification or pressure altitude transmission|
|P||Mode S with pressure altitude transmission, but no aircraft identification|
|S||Mode S with both pressure altitude transmission and aircraft identification|
|B1||ADS-B with dedicated 1090 MHz ADS-B “out” capability|
|B2||ADS-B with dedicated 1090 MHz ADS-B "out" and "in" capability|
|U1||ADS-B "out" capability using UAT|
|U2||ADS-B "out" and "in" capability using UAT|
|V1||ADS-B "out" capability using VDL Mode 4|
|V2||ADS-B "out" and "in" capability using VDL Mode 4|
|D1||ADS-C with FANS 1/A capabilities|
|G1||ADS-C with ATN capabilities|
A common mistake is for operators to not have the correct Flight ID listed in their aircraft’s Flight Management System (FMS). Be sure the Flight ID in the FMS matches what is filed as the call sign in Item 7 of the FPL. You can read more here.
Mandates for ADS-B are growing worldwide and are still in the early stages of a global roll-out. With ADS-B mandates becoming more mainstream, operators without those capabilities may experience delays, re-routes, and/or FL changes. On some routings between Singapore and Hong Kong, transiting Vietnam’s airspace, current ADS-B mandates could mean that non-ADS-B-compliant operators may be held down at or below FL 280.
If you have any questions about this blog article, ADS-B implementation, or requirements, or any worldwide flight planning regulation, contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org.