ADS (automatic dependent surveillance)-B is air traffic satellite-based surveillance technology. ADS-B is automatic and requires no pilot or external input. It’s dependent in that it depends on data from the aircraft’s navigation system. ADS-B is a key element of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and is now mandatory in certain regions of airspace. Though there have been some delays for certain countries, overall there haven’t been additional countries that have implemented ADS-B requirements for the coming year.
The following is an overview of what you need to know:
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above flight level (FL) 290 over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513) and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). ADS-B is required for all Australian registered aircraft if operating in Class A, B, C or E airspace within the minor arc of a circle that starts 500 nautical miles (NM) true north from Perth (YPPH) and finishes 500 NM true east from YPPH. More information can be found on AIP GEN 2.2 CASA 114/16.
Australia published ADS-B mandate changes in late 2016 which has allowed some operators of non-ADS-B equipped aircraft to continue to operate below FL 290, for a limited period. However, beginning Jun 06, 2020, ADS-B will be required for all IFR flights, above and below FL290, across the continent.
ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft with certificates of airworthiness issued on or after Jan 8, 2015. Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts). For more information see EC No 1207/2011 and EC No 1028/2014 (AMDT to 1207/2011).
In 2014, Europe delayed certain ADS-B implementation requirements, to exempt some operators from ADS-B requirements for another two to six years, depending upon when the aircraft was manufactured. Be aware that commencing Jun 7, 2020, ADS-B will be mandated for all IFR flights for aircraft with MTOW of 5700 kg (12,655 lbs.) or greater and/or maximum cruising TAS greater than 250 kts.
3. Hong Kong
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 on airways L642 and M771. For more information see AIP GEN 1.5-1 and AIP SUP A02/16. At one point Hong Kong had published ADS-B mandates for the entire Hong Kong FIR above FL 290. But in recent AIP updates those proposed future dates for full implementation have been removed. At this time there is no information available on any future changes to ADS-B mandates for Hong Kong.
In 2015, Indonesia delayed published ADS-B mandates to allow non-ADS-B equipped operators an additional three years to become compliant. At this time no current ADS-B mandates are in effect.
As of Jan 1, 2018, ADS-B will be required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL 290. More information can be found at AIP SUP 08/15.
We are awaiting more information from Civil Aviation pertaining to any ADS-B requirements.
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 on the following airway segments:
- L642 (ENREP to ESPOB)
- L644 (MABLI to DUDIS)
- M753 (ENREP to IPRIX), M771 (DOLOX to DUDIS)
- M904 (ENREP to TIDAR)
- N891 (ENREP to IGARI)
- N892 (MABLI to MELAS)
- R208 (UPRON to IGARI)
For more information see AIP ENR 1.8-1.
7. Sri Lanka
No current ADS-B mandates.
Beginning in 2020, ADS-B will be required within the Colombo terminal maneuvering area (TMA). More details will be released at a later time, when it’s available. For more information see AIC 02/16.
No current ADS-B mandates. Starting Dec 31, 2019, ADS-B will be required when operating over all 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 180. In the case of Class B, C and E airspace, ADS-B will be applicable above FL 100, but excluding airspace from 2,500 ft AGL and below.
Required for all operations at or above FL 290 on airways L625, L628, L642, M765, M768, M771, N500 and N892. For more information see AIP SUP 09/13-1.
Taiwan delayed full airspace implementation of ADS-B requirements back in September 2016. While the use of two airways in Taiwan airspace currently require ADS-B compliance, all other airspace, over FL 290, remains open to non-ADS-B equipped aircraft.
As of Dec 31, 2019, ADS-B will become mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL 290. For more information see AIP SUP 06/16.
11. Published delays in ADS-B implementation
We are finding that some Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) with ADS-B mandates have published delays and changes regarding ADS-B implementation. This has included Australia, Europe, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. The following section contains a recap of some of the more significant changes to previously implemented ADS-B mandates.
ADS-B mandates will slowly come into force for the countries above and eventually will impact more and more airspace and flight levels. While there have been certain exemptions in the past, for non-ADS-B equipped aircraft in designated ADS-B airspace, these are coming to the end and/or subject to sunset provisions. Additionally, some countries have delayed the process which will provide some relief to non-ADS-B equipped aircraft.
If you have any questions about this article, ADS-B implementation or requirements, or any worldwide flight planning regulation, contact me at email@example.com.
Category : Best Practice
About Jason Davidson
A lifelong aviation enthusiast with nearly 15 years in the field, pilot and flight instructor Jason Davidson is an expert in all areas of flight planning. Jason, who joined Universal Weather and Aviation, Inc. in 2005, has spent time on the Universal portfolio teams facilitating trips and providing quality assurance and project management duties to further improve systems within Universal. He currently serves as Flight Planning Technical Specialist, and plays a critical role in preparing the Flight Planning Team and clients for all aspects and changes regarding flight planning such as ICAO 2012. Jason has a Bachelor of Science degree in aviation from the University of North Dakota.
He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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