ADS-B Requirements Coming Into Effect

> | September 23, 2013 | 5 Comments
|

ADS-B Requirements Coming Into Effect

Requirements for operators to be ADS-B equipped are being implemented in various parts of the world. For some, those implementation dates are right around the corner. Operators who do not meet ADS-B mandates may face reduced operating flexibility worldwide. Therefore, it’s important to understand emerging regulatory requirements and how they’ll impact your future global mobility.

The following is an overview of what you need to know:

1. Understand ADS-B

ADS stands for "Automatic Dependent Surveillance" – a surveillance capability used for tracking aircraft. There are two commonly recognized types of ADS: ADS-B (broadcast) and ADS-C (ContRact). ADS-C is broadcast on a one-to-one relationship between the reporting aircraft and the ground facility. ADS-B, on the other hand, operates in a broadcast mode, in which the aircraft reports position and ground speed information on a regular basis and at a much higher frequency than for ADS-C. The advantage of ADS-B is that any appropriately equipped ground facility, or other aircraft, can intercept position reports.

2. Many countries are implementing ADS-B requirements

Here’s a list of areas with upcoming/current ADS-B requirements:

Australia

  1. Within 12 nautical miles (NM) around Australia and its external territories (territorial islands) from Flight Level (FL) 290 and above.
    1. Arafura Sea bounded on the north by airway B598
    2. Great Australian Bight bounded on the south by airways Q27/L513
    3. Bass Strait bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by airway L513.

11/13/13: Updated by author

Canada

  1. There is no part of Canadian airspace that currently requires ADS-B capabilities, nor are there any known proposals to change this. Those flights that are registered with NAV CANADA and properly equipped can receive a higher level of service in the Hudson Bay ADS-B coverage area, as well as areas in and around Southern Greenland.

Eurocontrol region

  1. Instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within European member states.

Hong Kong

  1. Phase 1: only applies to airways L642 and M771 from FL290 and above.
  2. Phase 2: all of Hong Kong airspace from FL290 and above.

Singapore

  1. Phase 1 – required on the following airway segments from FL290 and above:
    1. L642, ENREP-ESPOB
    2. M771, DOLOX-DUDIS
    3. N891, ENREP-IGARI
    4. M753, ENREP-IPRIX
    5. L644, MABLI-DUDIS
    6. N892, MABLI-MELAS
    7. R208, UPRON-IGAR
  2. Phase 2 – required on the following airway segment from FL 290 and above:
    1. M904, ENREP-TIDAR

11/07/13: Updated by author

United States

  1. Over the contiguous 48 states.
    1. Required from FL180 and above (Class A airspace)
    2. All class B and C airspace
    3. Class E from FL100 and above, excluding the airspace from 2,500′ above ground level (AGL) and below.
  2. Over the Gulf of Mexico from FL030 and above, within 12NM of the coastline of the United States.

Vietnam

  1. Required on the following airways from FL290 and above:
    1. L625
    2. M771
    3. N892
    4. L642
    5. M765
    6. M768
    7. N500
    8. L628

Taiwan

  1. Phase 1: only applies to airways B576 & B591 at and above FL290.
  2. Phase 2: all of Taiwan airspace from FL290 and above.

10/28/13: Updated by author

3. Here’s when ADS-B requirements will be implemented

Australia

  1. December 12, 2013

Eurocontrol region

  1. Forward fit: January 8, 2015
    1. Applies only to aircraft that have an individual certificate of airworthiness first issued on or after January 8, 2015.
  2. Retro Fit: December 7, 2017
    1. Applies to all aircraft.

Hong Kong

  1. Phase 1: December 12, 2013
  2. Phase 2: December 31, 2014

Singapore

  1. Phase 1: December 12, 2013
  2. Phase 2: June 26, 2014

11/07/13: Updated by author

United States

  1. January 1, 2020

Vietnam

  1. December 12, 2013

Taiwan

  1. Phase 1: December 12, 2013
  2. Phase 2: December 31, 2014

10/28/13: Updated by author

4. Know country/region-specific ADS-B standards

Australia

  1. ADS-B 1090 megahertz (Mhz) Extended Squitter (ES)
  2. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Flight Plan (FPL) equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. Transponder code: E or L
      2. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2

Canada

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2
    2. Item 18
      1. CODE/field is required
  3. Operator must also be registered with NAV CANADA per requirements in Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) 31/11.

Eurocontrol region

  1. Only required for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 5,700 kilograms (kgs) (12,566 pounds [lbs.]) or greater or maximum cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots true airspeed (KTAS).
  2. ADS-B 1090 Mhz ES (ED-102A/DO-260B)
  3. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. Transponder code: E or L
      2. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2

Hong Kong

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2

10/29/13: Updated by author

Singapore

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2
    2. Item 18
      1. CODE/ *The aircraft’s aircraft address (24 Bit Code) in hexadecimal format.2

11/07/13: Updated by author

United States

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES or universal access transceiver (UAT)
    1. Must meet Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-260B and/or DO-282B standards
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. Transponder code: E or L
      2. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2, and/or U1 or U2

Vietnam

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. Transponder code: E or L
      2. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2

Taiwan

  1. ADS-B 1090Mhz ES
  2. ICAO FPL equipment and capabilities
    1. Item 10b
      1. Transponder code: E or L
      2. ADS-B code(s): B1 or B2

10/28/13: Updated by author

5. Exemptions may be available for operators without ADS-B capability

Besides avoiding the airspace, airway(s) or certain flight segments, a flight may be able to operate to or within those areas with specific exemptions:

Australia

  • Exemptions are available for only a specific area of Australian airspace.
  • Exemptions are valid until 11-DEC-2015.
  • Exemption area map.
  • Exemptions can be applied for by completing Form 208.
  • More details about the exemption can be found on the CASA website.

11/13/13: Updated by author

Eurocontrol region

  • There are no known exemptions foreseen in European Union regulation number 1207/2011.

Hong Kong

  • No exemptions to the rules are available.

Singapore

  • No exemptions to the rules are available.

United States

  • No exemptions to the rules are available.

Vietnam

  • No exemptions to the rules are available.

Taiwan

  • No exemptions to the rules are available.

10/28/13: Updated by author

6. Links for ADS-B requirements country-by-country

Australia

Canada

Eurocontrol region

Hong Kong

10/29/13: Updated by author

Singapore

11/07/13: Updated by author

United States

Vietnam

Taiwan

10/28/13: Updated by author

7. Additional considerations for Hong Kong and Singapore

Note that when Hong Kong Phase 2 becomes effective on December 31, 2014, the same airspace will also require an operation to be RNP4-certified (AIC 03/12).

Keep an eye out for updated publications. Hong Kong and Singapore have indicated they’ll be issuing updated AIC and/or aeronautical information publication (AIP) SUP documentation to clarify planning requirements.

8. Tips when traversing regions with ADS-B requirements

Become familiar with ICAO FPL equipment and capability codes (Items 10a and 10b) as well as your performance-based navigation (PBN) codes to help prevent misunderstandings with air traffic control (ATC) while in flight. Know which codes apply to the specific operation. Remember that codes filed in the FPL should represent not only aircraft equipment and capabilities, but also those crew members covered by necessary training, authorizations from state of registry and working equipment.

Conclusion

ADS-B is coming, and the requirements in various airspaces could cause operations to be inconvenienced in a large way. Be sure to communicate with your 3rd-party provider to see how your operations may be affected if you have yet to meet the ADS-B requirements.

Questions?

If you have any questions about this article or about ADS-B implementation, contact me at jasondavidson@univ-wea.com.

Get airport and FBO information on your iPad® for free! Download on the App Store.
|

Tags: ,

Category : Best Practice

Related Posts

About

A lifelong aviation enthusiast with nearly 15 years in the field, pilot and flight instructor Jason Davidson is an expert in all areas of flight planning. Jason, who joined Universal Weather and Aviation, Inc. in 2005, has spent time on the Universal portfolio teams facilitating trips and providing quality assurance and project management duties to further improve systems within Universal. He currently serves as Flight Planning Technical Specialist, and plays a critical role in preparing the Flight Planning Team and clients for all aspects and changes regarding flight planning such as ICAO 2012. Jason has a Bachelor of Science degree in aviation from the University of North Dakota.

He can be reached at jasondavidson@univ-wea.com.

Operational Insight is a moderated blog.
Before adding your comments, please read our Comment Policy.